Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos

Author Name: 
Jiang, R. T., Cheng, K. C., Acevedo-Bolton, V., et al.
Publication Date: 
Friday, November 11, 2011
Private File Attachment: 
Description: 
Second-hand smoke is known to cause lung diseases and distress as well as pulmonary problems in humans. The Jiang et al article seeks to find out the affects that ambient cigarette smoke causes in users of Indian casinos. Because persons on tribals lands do not have to follow California SHS laws, it is probable that smoking indoors and SHS is more prevalent. This is the first article to study this many casinos for PM25 (airbourne fine particles) on a statewide basis. Methods of collecting this data are interesting to read about because of the wide array of devices used and captured data, especially with its relatively recent age. Summary statistics for the 36 casinos are printed. There was one small casino in California that banned smoking. The average PM2.5 level inside this casino was 5.4 mg/m3, comparable to the mean outdoor concentration (5.5mg/m3). The indoor PM2.5 level in this smoke-free casino was less than 1/10th the average in the smoking areas of the 35 other casinos, and 1/4th the average in the non-smoking areas of the casinos that allowed smoking.” PM2.5 concentrations in the smoking areas of 35 smoking Indian casinos in California averaged 63 mg/m3, 3 times as high as in the non-smoking areas (22mg/m3), 2 times as high as in casino restaurants (29 mg/m3), and 410 times as high as in the smoke- free casino (5.4 mg/m3). These results, taken together, strongly indicate that SHS is the predominant cause of elevated PM 2.5 concentrations in the casinos sampled. (Jiang, 2011)